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Full text of "Indians at work"


INDIANS 

AT WORK 



JULY-AUGUST 1943 



Secretary Ickes Describes Senate Report as Seriously Inaccurate 

"This cure," said Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes of the partial re- 
port issued June 11, by the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs in a letter to Senator 
Elmer Thomas of Oklahoma, the committee chairman, "turns out to be nothing less 
than the ancient remedy of hanging the doctor." He referred to the recommendation 
for the liquidation of the Office of Indian Affairs as aremedy for the ills of the Indians. 

The main recommendations of this report are, briefly: That all Indian day 
schools on allotted reservations be promptly closed. That all Indian boarding schools 
wherever situated, be closed at the end of the present fiscal year. That all Federal 
payments of tuition for Indian pupils in local public schools be stopped. That all Indi- 
an hospitals be abandoned as hospitals for Indians and turned over to the U, S. Public 
Health Service for its miscellaneous uses. That the management of Indian forests be 
transferred to the Department of Agriculture. That the Bureau of Indian Affairs be 
promptly liquidated. That all Indian tribal funds be distributed per capita. That Fed- 
eral protection be withdrawn from all Indian property so that such property may be 
immediately subjected to taxation and alienation. 

In his letter released July 16, Secretary Ickes called attention to ten of the 
"most serious of the inaccuracies" in the partial report, and said, "if all of these in- 
accuracies were merely the product of carelessness, and if the fact that they atv. 
prejudicial to the record of the administration were a mere coincidence, it would be 
sufficient to say that the number and extent of them render this report unworthy of the 
standards which the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs and its investigating subcom- 
mittee have sought to maintain for many years. 

"Underlying all of the misstatements in this 'Partial Report' is a single thesis 
as to the source of all the evils of the present situation and a sublime trust in a single 
panacea for the solution of all these evils. The thesis is that whatever is bad in Indian 
administration is ascribable to selfish, grasping, incompetent administrators. The 
proposed panacea is the elimination of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 

"The diagnosis ignores a century and half of history and an impressive body 
of statutes and treaties recognizing and implementing Federal responsibilities to In- 
dian groups. You must realize as well as I how large a part of the unhappiness whLch 
this report ascribes to Indian Bureau maladministration is really the result of accu- 
mulated historic wrongs which this administration is gradually and persistently cor- 
recting. You, as Chairman of the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs since 1935, and 
as a member of that Committee for about 8 years prior to that date, must know how 
large a part of the policies which this 'Partial Report' condemns is aproduct of legis- 
lation which you and your fellow- members of your subcommittee have sponsored and 
helped to enact." 

After enumerating several of the complaints in the subcommittee's report, Sec- 
retary Ickes said, "in each of the foregoing respects, the report attacks the Bureau 
of Indian Affairs for carrying out policies which were laid down by Congress, and 
were in fact largely formulated, in recent years, by yourself and by other members 
of your committee. 

Catherine White, Chippewa, has completed a 
weldirtg course and is ready for work in a shipyard 
Cover Photo, by Duluth News Tribune 



"*/ 



INDIANS AT WORK 

Secretary Ickes Describes Senate Report 

As Seriously Inaccurate Inside Front Cover 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Menominee Women Work in Mills 

and Forest Jeanne Clark 8 

W. Barton Greenwood Is New Assistant 

Commissioner. . . 13 

A Letter From New Guinea 13 

Personnel Changes in Indian Service 14 

Earl Riley is Bacone's First President 

of Indian Blood 15 

Federal Grants For Student Nurses 15 

Among Recent Books Anita S. Tilden 16 

Beauty in the Night (Globe-Gazette) 19 

In Alaska 87-year-old Eskimos Want 

To Fight . 20 

Hoopa Leader Dies in Accident . . . 21 

"To Exercise Certain Rights of Self Government". 22 

In Fifty Years There May Be As Many Indians As 

Before the White Man's Arrival 25 

From The Mail Bag 29 

Last Rites For Navajo Flier 31 

Cherokee Ignores Intense Pain - Returns to Gun 32 

Indians In The News 33 

Ute Indian Was Scout on Guadalcanal 34 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR - OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS- CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. 




AT WORK 

A News Shtet For INDIANS ana f ha INDIAN SERVICE 

VOLUME XI JULY-AUGUST 1943 NUMBER 2 



Father Gordon, Chippewa Indian and lifelong battler for Indian rights, asked 
me in Chicago: What, in my view, was the spiritual contribution of Indians to America? 

This caused me to remark, first: that it seemed for whatever reason that 
Americans were willing to take ideas, inspirations, from the Indiana - more willing 
to learn from the Indians, possibly, than from anybody else. 

Then together we built up what follows, from the obvious to the less obvious, 
the smaller to the greater. 

Indians generally do not care much about accumulating wealth. They seem to 
care more about giving than about getting. 

Indians, with some very marked exceptions, are not afflicted with the sentiment 
of insecurity. They do not seem to fear themselves, to fear their neighbors, or to 
fear the future. This disease, insecurity, which haunts our white souls, seems not to 
have reached to the Indians except in a few cases. 

When Indians suffer misfortune, sickness, even disgrace, and the death of 
loved ones, they are not devastated the way white people usually are. This is not to 
say that their emotional responses do not run deep and keen. In former times, among 
the Plains Indians particularly, mutilation of the body as a token of mourning was not 
unusual. Today, the anguish of Indian parents at separation from their children com- 
plicates school programs. But these shocks of existence, somehow, abide In the 
depths and, somehow, release themselves, as wild electrical currents somehow find 
their way into an absorbing earth. 

The Indians have more than the average reason for feeling hatred. But they 
are peculiarly free of hatred. Hatred hideously moves much of the white world I It 
does not move Indians. 

Working on railroads in the Southwest are more than 150 Navajos, 

Hopis and Pimas. Eddie Yazzie, Ta Ba Ha Nez, and Robert Long Salt, Navajos. 

Photo, by Southern Pacific 



All these things are negatively stated. Why are Indians free from greed, free 
from anxiety, free from poisoning sorrow, free from hate? 

We agreed that Indians seem to exist, and to feel, closer to the earth - the uni- 
verse - than most white people do. 

We recollected the disciplines and the rituals which have gone ahead through 
the ages of Indian life, designed to unite the individual with his race, with the earth, 
with the spirit. They still go ahead in a great many tribes, and they seem to bear the 
Indian up and outward as on a tide. Perhaps this tide flows yet for nearly all Indians, 
even though "moving, it seems asleep, too full for sound or foam." 

Then, passing to aspects more demonstrable, we remembered how crafts- 
manship is even now all but universal among Indians (true craftsmanship is a joyful 
conquest of matter by the spirit); how recreation and worship are blended in tribal 
life; and finally, how the Indians have undergone until quite recently - no, even now 
they undergo it - that sort of ordeal which many nations have undergone in recent 
years: the ordeal of knowing that all they hold dear, and even existence itself , is fear- 
fully endangered. White Americans know very little of this ordeal. Indians have 
known it through lifetimes. Even now they have beat their way but a little distance 
back from the edge of the precipice. This kind of ordeal burns much of the smallness 
out of men and out of nations, and causes men and nations to seek out and hold dear 
their profounder springs of life. 

So as we talked we had glimpses of many spiritual contributions which the In- 
dians could make to America. We suspected that they are making them in fact. 

* * * 

That same day, as it chanced, in the wholesale district and down near the 
Chicago River in a dead-end street, I chanced on the dustiest old-book-shop I have 
ever seen. "You can't browse here" the owner said. "I've been thinking for two 
years about getting them in order," as he shook and dusted the grime from some vol- 
umes I was trying to read the titles of. 

One of these books was Henri Bergson's "Mind- Energy." 

I read this book, and then in Washington D'Arcy McNickle mentioned a thought 
he was brooding upon, and Ward Shepard mentioned an almost identical thought, and 
Bergson and these Indian Service workers flashed to a great light. 

Man's soul -body first dealt with other men and with the earth as soul-bodies 
do in all of the animal kingdom. Action by man upon man and upon the world was a 
direct muscle-action using the whole man - the whole soul-body. 

Then man moved out into a revolutionary change. He substituted abstract and 
mathematical concepts for his emotion- saturated animistic symbols of nature, and he 
substituted technologies for muscle in controlling nature. It worked. It worked tri- 
umphantly. Nature, non-living, yielded to mechanical technology, and the boundless 
conquest of nature by man was written all across the earth, and knowledge reached to 
the galaxies a billion light-years away. 




The Rev. Philip B. Gordon, Chippewa, only Catholic Indian priest in the country, visits a group 
of Indian soldiers at Camp Grant, Illinois. Pvts. George P. DeCota, Roy Deer, Lloyd M.Waukau, 
George Pea ine, Calvin M. Martin, Anthony T. Schofield, Mitchell Tepiew and Ralph C. Mann. 

Photo, by U.S. Army Signal Corps 



Then man said, or he presumed and acted on the presumption: 

"Technology conquers the mighty earth. Frail man is no exception: technol- 
ogy - I now commit my highest inward, human hope." 

McNickle and Shepard think that the world is now "cracking up" because of 
this fatal presumption carried into all the regions of soul -body and of human relations. 

McNickle and Shepard, with other thinkers, mean more than merely that tech- 
nology is "pushing men around," and disrupting the age-old family and group rela- 
tionships. They mean more, even, than the dizzying speeding-up of social change by 
technology, and more, even, than the all-devouring nature of war, now that war has 
appropriated technology. They mean something more central: the consequences of 
relying only on technology and its effects to shape ana control and save the human be- 
ing. They mean the decay and the abandonment of the personality-building institutions 
of the race, due to that fatal presumption which violates the wisdom of the ages - the 
wisdom which tells that goodiife, happy and sane life, greatness of life, are the re- 
sults of inward effort alone - inward effort awakened and guided and reinforced by 
purposeful Institutions created through immense time for the making of man by man. 
They mean that man casts himself toward the outer darkness when he relies for his 
soul's and heart's salvation only on those principles and devices which are so suffi- 
cient when applied to physical nature. 

Henri Bergson tells why it is even so, why it must be so. 

Soul and life, Bergson insists, have another building and guiding principle, not 



mechanical technology. If they give up this inwardness of theirs, and substitute, to- 
ward the shaping and nurturing of life, a predominating technology, there will ensue 
inner confusion, frustration; and there will ensue within the soul, that downward drag 
of being which is the way of physical matter and which it is life's unique secret to re- 
verse and to change into an upward flight on wings. There will ensue all atavisms, 
all cynicisms, all raging hates. There will ensue emotional and spiritual poisoning, 
starvation, and In the fearful end, collective insanity. Technology when relied on as 
the maker of life Is the Insurer of death. So Bergson asserted In his vast, radiant 
and precise metaphysical thinking. So McNlckle and Shepard (as two of many thinkers 
of many schools) see, looking out over man's world today. 

Ward Shepard makes the thought concrete as follows: 

"Looking over that world in its more concrete aspects, we can see what we 
mean. Our mechanized economic system, with the deadly and deadening assembly 
belt as its goal, Is steadily reducing work from creative, integrative activity to a 
fragmented routine without beginning or end, without any kind of unity, wholeness, or 
adventure. The victims of this sterility, far from apprehending the cause or extent 
of their gigantic frustration, have tried to escape from it through" the device of ever 
shorter hours and higher pay. But most men can not even escape into meaningful 
play, for the void of mechanized and passive work leads to the void of mechanized and 
passive play In the movie, the radio, the newspaper, and professional, onlooker sports. 
The mechanical conquest of nature has produced the ultimate frustration of cutting 
modern man off from nature. Instead of living in and with nature, we exploit nature 
and lay waste her fecundity and beauty, not yet sensing that nature relentlessly de- 
stroys those of her creatures who do not 'belong'. And finally, the decay of social in- 
stitutions under the impact of the purely mechanistic and the deeply false philosophy 
of sheer individualism, has starved and frustrated man's profound instinct for mem- 
bership In the group and for fellowship In a humanistic society. 

"Such frustrations, evilly flowering In the soil of the past century - ramifying 
Into endless complex and multiplying minor frustrations - account for the ominous 
Increase of psychosis In the modern world. But may we not go further? May we not 
say that In' the past quarter- century they have emerged from below the threshold of 
the conscious mind of large portions of the whole race Into the schizophrenic apathy 
of world depression and the paranoid hatred of the present world war? Are we not In 
fact In the full fury of a world psychosis, which is rooted in the century-long denial 
of the real nature and nurture of the human soul?" 

* * * 

To all the above, I add one saving thought. 

We never solve problems, in the small or in the large, by excluding essential 
elements just because they are troublesome. We solve by Including the elements 
needed to establish balance and healthy forward movement. 

Mechanical technology is a good, not an evil. It is a necessity. Its continued 
development is one of the dominating necessities and opportunities of human fate. 
Our Race's problem due to technology Is a terrific one, but Its solution does not He 
In the exclusion of technology. 




Josie Green McKinney, Potawatomi, of Kansas, is a Beadworker, Victory Gardener and Bond Buyer. 

Photo by Gordon Brown 

The solution lies in re- claiming for the soul -body that which is its own; in re- 
asserting those values called spiritual; and in a concentrated and sustained social 
endeavor, through social invention, to bring the means of technology under the control 
of the ends of the soul, of the conscience and of the heart. 



Even now, under the lurid, fevered shadow of technology raised to the omnip- 
otence of a god, psychological discovery is advancing very fast. Social science is be- 
ing enriched from psychology in one direction, from mathematics In another (the two 
poles of existence as man knows existence). The art and science of human manage- 
ment - of administration - are developing as experimental arts and sciences. And as 
stated In this editorial, many peoples, in the world- ordeal now going on, have been 
burnt clean of their trivialities and forced back upon their spiritual sources. 

Does there not define itself a war vaster and longer than the military war, an 
enterprise profounder and longer than even the enterprise of setting up the frame- 
workof a peace- insuring world-order? Here is the next chapter of creative endeavor 
on our planet. Upon the successful writing of this chapter, the actual survival of hu- 
man goodness and of the infinite human potential depends. 



The work of Indian service is, however gropingly and infinitesimally, a part 
of the effort to write this chapter of the human hope of today and tomorrow. 



» * * 



McNickle thinks that possibly the greatest practical meaning of Indians to the 
present world is just the one simple, supreme fact: that Indians, by and large and 
typically, still know that only life makes life, only life guards life and benignly shapes 
life. They still keep the ancient wisdom which is life's share of the cosmic wisdom. 
They know that mechanical technology is man's means of controlling physical nature, 
and that the control of human and social nature derives from another, an Inward 
source, and that to substitute technology for inner creation in the sphere of life is to 
cast life, blinded, into the clutches of giant and dismembering machinery or out into 
a waterless desert land. 

If these thoughts are sound, then Indians have indeed a message for our pres- 
ent world of which they are a part. 

* * * 

I re-think this editorial as sunlight floods through the woods in early morning. 
These woods, it occurs to me, were clean-cut, wrecked woods not so many years ago. 
Now, the gray silver gleaming stems of the oaks live their lives in a thousand years 
gone and to-be. 

Last night, byan electric torch, I readCaptain Lawson's "Thirty Seconds Over 
Tokyo." The boyish author talked to Robert Considine, whose recording attains to 
perfection. People In the O.W.I, who met Lawson in Washington recently, tell me he 
is as boyish, simple-hearted, and modest and charming as his book is. 

Here is more than just a grand story grandly told. The almost unbelievably 
immense, far-ramifying planning and teamwork which operated behind and within the 
bombing of Japan is so revealed here as to amount to a symbol and a prophecy of what 
our country really can be and do when the imperative call sounds and is heard. Not 
denatured, not diminished, are these young lives, flashing in a dawn as new as Salamis 
or Roncesvalles or Trafalgar. Nothing is yet lost from man. The , hero is in man 
still . The genius and virtue to match the utmost challenge of the world are great 
in man, great in America . How almost too late the issues were faced, how almost 
too long our country waited to give its young hearts and brains their signal. But we 
did face the issues, we gave the signal. So may it be in the yet more fateful, the 
longer war which includes this World War! 



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Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 




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Our forests would mean nothing to us" said a Menominee Indian, "if the Axis won the war." 




Nellie Wishkeno took over a man s job 



Gordon Dickie trained his wife for his job 



Menominee Women Work in Mills and Forest 

By Jeanne Clark 

When Nellie Wishkeno, 17-year-old Menominee girl recently took over the job 
of driving a truck fromNeopit into the shades of the Menominee forest, she joined the 
ranks of 75 other women of her tribe who are now working in the Menominee lumber 
mills, the lumber camp, in "blister-rust" areas, and other positions formerly han- 
dled by the Indian men who have since gone to war - either in the armed forces or in 
critical war production work. 

The roll of honor in the Menominee Agency office now lists the names of 200 
men - men who used to keep the logs rolling at the lumber mills, but who are now on 
active duty with the Army, Navy or Marine Corps. With over 90% of the mill lumber 
going directly to war industries, the work of these men had to continue but the man- 
power shortage on the reservation forced the mill management to curtail production 
- until Menominee women were called to replace them. 

One of the first projects which the women have taken over is the blister rust 
eradication program. Over 50 girls work in the forest helping to eliminate the goose- 
berry and other host plants which attack and destroy the white pine trees. Nellie 
Wishkeno is one of the girls who drive the Menominee women to and from this impor- 
tant work. Formerly manned by CCC employees, the project is now directly under 
mill supervision and every morning the girls, in typical war worker garb of coveralls 
and visored caps, climb on to the trucks, ready for their day of work in the woods. 

May 3 of this year marked the first time that women have ever worked direct- 
ly in the mill operations - but they made possible the return of the second shift which 
was discontinued for three months because of the manpower shortage. They have 
learned how to pick stock, work on the tipper, bundle lath and are also doing general 
cleanup work. Thirty women are now employed in mill jobs but by fall about 50 more 
women will be available if plans for the establishment of a day nursery are completed. 
Many mothers who are capable and eager to work will be able to bring their children 
to the nursery while they help in the great war function of the mills. 



In addition to their work in the mills several women are also employed in the 
lumber camp five miles from Neopit. Here they help in the cooking and serving and 
the general upkeep of the camp. They have also taken over clerking positions in the 
two tribal stores in Keshena and Neopit. One of the most unusual jobs at the mill is 
that of Mrs. Irene Dickie who has taken over her husband's work as mill stock room 
clerk. For three weeks before he enlisted in the Army, Gordon Dickie trained his 
wife in the intricacies of sorting filters, machine bolts, cap screws, small generators, 
tractor parts and other items used in the operation of the lumber mills. Dickie was 
formerly chairman of the Advisory Board which controls the operation of the mills 
and was also a tribal delegate when representatives of the Menominee Tribe conferred 
with Indian Service officials in Washington. 

While many of the jobs which the women have taken over center around the 
tribal enterprises one of the most important positions on the Menominee Reservation 
is that of Mrs. Rhoda House, first Indian woman judge at Menominee and one of few 
in the entire country. Every Monday morning Mrs. House and Edward Brisk, co- 
judge of the Menominee Tribe conduct hearings on liquor and traffic regulations, ju- 
venile cases and other misdemeanors committed on the reservation. Appointed Men- 
ominee judge in January of this year, Mrs. House has always had an intense interest 
in tribal affairs and during the past few years has been an active leader among the 
Menominee women. She was president of the League of Women Voters for four years 
and of the Parent-Teachers Association two years and during the last tribal election 
was a candidate, along with two other Menominee women, for the advisory council. A 
spectator at the court session feels that Judge House does not impose jail sentences 
or fines as a matter of course but appears more interested in finding the reasons for 
law violations, suggesting remedies, and thereby preventing crime in the future. 
Superintendent J. Lyle Cunningham has said that her approach to problems of family 
relationships which come before the Indian court is excellent and has helped exten- 
sively in the programs and activities recently inaugurated by the mills and agency to 
interest the Menominee youth in wholesome activities and thus decrease juvenile 
court cases. 

Plans for a community recreation center have been curtailed by war restric- 
tions, but a network of activities has already been established and the youth programs 
have advanced surprisingly during the past year. 

The first step was the selection of a committee which consisted of the super- 
intendent, the advisory council, the law and order staff, 4-H leaders and representa- 
tives of women's organizations. With few resources or facilities other than a deter- 
mination to construct "duration" recreation centers, the committee set about con- 
verting a former carpenter shop at Neopit into a young peoples' center now known as 
the "Beaded Moccasin," which boasts a dance floor, "juke-box," and equipment for 
indoor games. It is also a full time business enterprise in that it has facilities for 
serving mid-day meals and fountain refreshments. 

With the first center completed at Neopit, the idea was extended to Keshena 
where a similar center called the "Arrowhead" is now established. Superintendent 
Cunningham checked the possibilities of showing movies in the day school gymnasium 
and the committee purchased a projection screen and built a movie booth so that twice 
a week the gymnasium is now converted into a movie theater. 



10 



From these three projects others developed with amazing rapidity. A library 
was established at Keshena and Boy Scout and Girl Scout troops organized. Under the 
guidance of Mr^ Cunningham and Indian women leaders an all-Indian Girl Scout troop 
was formed, and forty Menominee girls are now wearing the green uniforms of the 
Scouts or the brown regulation dresses of the junior "Brownie" group. Each girl is 
doubly proud of her uniform, for the money for them was earned by operating re- 
freshment stands at various community gatherings. 

4-H club activities were reorganized under the direction of Nellie F. Wade, 
community day school teacher, and at recent state exhibits Indian girls were awarded 
honors for their 4-H activities. Delores Wilbur was chosen as an outstanding member 
in the 4-H sewing project. 

The Neopit Girl Scouts have become vitally interested in home-making, in 
community services for the older people, and have undertaken programs in group 
game J : :dership and helped in the collection of metal during the recent scrap drive 
on the reservation. 

The same Indian women who are guiding the younger girls in their activities 
are also deeply engrossed in their own war relief work. Red Cross knitting classes 
were formed and the fine, nimble fingers of the Menominee women have knit many 
sweaters, caps, and socks for the Shawano County Red Cross chapter. With the ad- 
vent of food and gas rationing, the women met weekly at Keshena and under the super- 
vision of the Home Economics teachers learned not only cooking and serving of meals 
but also the stretching of precious ration points. 



Menominee women worK in their lumber mills 

Dorothy Dickie, Mrs. Fred Shawano, Mrs. Russell Tourtillot 




11 



Six Menominee women are members of the Women's Motor Corps and several 
have certificates in home nursing courses, while others have been appointed to duties 
with the Civilian Defense Unit. 

With all these activities the women still believe that their most important work 
is in keeping the lumber mills rolling, for that is the enterprise around which the 
lives of all the Menominee Indians revolve. The Menominee mills process both hard- 
wood and softwood and the Menominee forest is the only source of hemlock in the 
north states. Thewhitepine is also avaluablewar material. Over half amillionfeet of 
hardwood were sold last year to veneer plants near the reservation for use in airplane 
propeller stock. 

A day spent in the business office of the mills proves the tremendous demand 
for lumber in war plants. Order after order - most of them with high priority ratings 
is sorted and an attempt is made to fill each one, but under present conditions only a 
small percentage can be completed. 

Present laws restrict the cutting of timber to 20 million feet yearly and it is 
this selective cutting that has preserved the Menominee forest so that there is still 
as much timber today as there was forty years ago. The vast area remains communal 
and unallotted and nothing has ever tempted the Menominees to part with their land. 

The Menominees, by the treaty of May 12, 1854, were assigned to the present 
reservation which "was not wanted by white settlers because it was nothing but a 
wilderness suitable for Indians whorefused to give up their hunting and fishing habits." 
While other forest areas in Wisconsin have been stripped of the greater portion of 
their trees, the Menominees have remained steadfast in their policy of selective cut- 
ting. During the past two years they have selected one day as "tree planting" day 
and men, women, and children of the tribe have participated in the planting of over 
100,000 trees. 

While the present restrictions state that only 20 million feet of timber can be 
cut yearly there is perhaps only one inducement that could tempt the Menominee Indi- 
ans to cut more timber. Knowing the tremendous part that lumber piays in war pro- 
duction, they would, if necessary, be willing to cut more of their forest if it was 
critically needed. 

One Menominee man summed it Up this way. "if a crisis arises, we would 
cut all the timber we can. Our forest would be of no value to us if the Axis won the 
war." 

In addition to employing women in the mills and camp, the manpower shortage 
has been solved to some extent by the use of an electric saw, introduced only recent- 
ly at the lumber camp. The Menominee camp is one of the first lumber industries in 
the Lake States to use this equipment. In charge of logging is James Caldwell, a 
Menominee Indian, who has been the logging superintendent for the past decade. Cald- 
well has come up in the lumber business the hard way and has witnessed the caval- 
cade of Paul Bunyan logging, team and rail logging, ' river drives," and the present 
system of hauling logs by truck. With the Menominee forest one of the few in the 
country in which the selective logging principle is adhered to, Caldwell's position de- 
mands more precise judgment and capabilities than is usually required of a logging 
superintendent. 







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Officials help keep the logs rolling. 



Neil Gauthier, Menominee, 

is Plant Manager and Victor Rushfeldt is Personnel Manager 



The policy of placing qualified Indians in supervisory jobs in the mills is in- 
dicated in the selection of Neil Gauthier as superintendent of the sawmill. Other 
Menominees have been chosen for responsible positions and present' figures show 
that at least 60% of the foremen are Indians. The personnel division of the mills re- 
cently initiated a four-week job training course sponsored by the War Manpower 
Commission, and every Friday night the foremen's group meets to discuss personnel 
problems and other pertinent ways of improving mill production. 

With the lives of the Menominee Indians centered around the lumber mill, the 
total yearly income of the Indian families on the Menominee Reservation is much 
higher than the average for Indians in other parts of the United States. For the fiscal 
year 1942 it was estimated that the average family income was $1372. This figure 
does not include the earnings of the 300 tribal members who were in the armed forces 
or residing outside the reservation. 

The curtailment of luxury items such as radios and automobiles has led the 
Menominee Indians to more useful purchases and wiser use of their money. This year 
when the annual "stumpage" payments of $42.77 each were made to all enrolled 
Menominees, the superintendent and the merchants in nearby centers noted that the 
Indians bought more clothing and household items and made better use of their money 
than ever before. Much of the children's money, expenditure of which is supervised 
by the agency staff, has been invested in War Bonds. Employees of the mills and 
agency have merited an honor certificate for participation in the payroll savings plan 
of War Bond purchases. 

But the operation of the lumber mills, the purchase of War Bonds and the send- 
ing of over 200 men into the armed forces and various war industries throughout the 
nation have not alone satisfied the patriotic ambitions of the Menominees. They want 
to do more and more because they love their country and realize that its proper de- 
fense requires the cooperative assistance of all who believe in the principles of free- 
dom. 



13 



Superintendent Cunningham recently said, "Members of the Menominee tribe 
do not contend that they are more patriotic than other Indians throughout the United 
States but they want it known that they are doing their part in the war. They are a 
proud people - proud of their country, proud of their boys in the military service, and 
proud of their own response to the nation's leaders. They share with all other Indians 
the will and determination that this country will continue its fight for world and nation- 
al freedom and will win a decisive victory over the predatory forces which endanger 
our future liberty." 



W. Parton Greenwood Is New Assistant Commissioner 

Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes promoted W. Barton Greenwood, 
Chief Administrative Officer, to a newly-established position of Assistant Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs on July 1,1943. This makesa second Assistant Commissioner.. 
William Zimmerman, Jr. who has served as Assistant Commissioner since 1933 will 
continue in his post. Mr. Greenwood will retain his duties as Chief Administrative 
Officer. 

Other changes in the Chicago headquarters include the appointment of H. M. 
Critchfield, Supervisor of Credit for the Extension Division, as Acting Assistant 
Chief of the Resources Branch with direct supervision over the Land Division. Allan 
Harper, formerly Director of Lands, expects to leave the country shortly for Bolivia 
on an agricultural mission. Mr. Harper has beer employed in Washington for the past 
four months with the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs. 

Dr. J. R.McGibony has been commissioned Senior Surgeon in the Public Health 
Service. His new rank corresponds with that of commander in the Navy. Dr. Mc- 
Gibony will continue as Director of the Health Division. 

A. L. Wathen, Chief Engineer, who was absent from the Office for a year on an 
agricultural mission to Arabia, has recently been assigned by Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs John Collier to stimulate and coordinate the post-war planning programs of 
the Tribal Councils, assisted by Indian Service technicians. 

Four sections of the Land Division, Records, Drafting, Acquisition, and Adjust- 
ments, have been consolidated recently into one section to be known as "Land Tenure 
and Acquisition Section." M. A. Pfeiffer has been designated Chief and Frank Hutch- 
ison, Osage Indian, is Assistant Chief. 

The other two sections of the Land Division are the Minerals Section, formerly 
Oil and Gas, of which G. M. Paulus has been appointed Chief, and the Claims Section, 
of which H. F. Larkin is Chief. 

A Letter From New Guinea 

A May 28, 1943 letter from New Guinea, sent airmail to this Office and signed by 
Pfc. Everett Rhoades, states: "in behalf of one squad of Apache, Maricopa. Pima and 
Navajo Indians, I wish to thank you for sending us the magazine "Indians At Work." 
We assure you it was enjoyed by every Indian boy in this company and we're looking 
forward for the next issue. Thanks a million for the paper." 



Personnel changes in Indian Service 

Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes has announced the appointment of 
George LaVatta, Shoshone Indian of the Fort Hall Reservation, Idaho, and widely known 
as a tribal relations representative in the Northwest, as superintendent of the Taholah 
Indian Reservation at Hoqulam, Washington. 

LaVatta's promotion, which became effective July 1, is in line with the policy 
of encouraging Indians to administer Indian affairs by training and promoting them 
{from the ranks to key positions in the Service. LaVatta's appointment brings to ten 
the number of Indians serving as superintendents, all of whom have been appointed 
under the present administration. Out of today's total of 8,000 Indian Service posi- 
tions in the United States and Alaska, Indians are employed In 60 per cent of the posi- 
tions. 

A graduate of the famous Carlisle Indian School, LaVatta entered the Indian 
Service in 1929. He had formerly worked up from a laborer's job to that of personnel 
assistant with the Union Pacific railroad. Since 1935, when he was promoted to the 
position of tribal relations representative with headquarters in Portland, Oregon, La- 
Vatta has traveled and worked among tribes In Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Nevada, 
and Utah, advising the Indians on their privileges and responsibilities under the Indian 
Reorganization Act of 1934. This fundamental legislation in present day Indian af- 
fairs grants to Indian communities the right to establish machinery for self-government, 
write and adopt constitutions, become incorporated, and in general, exercise the rights 
of a municipality. In 1941 LaVatta received the Achievement Award, an annual pre- 
sentation of the Indian Council Fire of Chicago, Illinois, to an Indian whose accom- 
plishments are considered outstanding. 

In his new post LaVatta will supervise several small reservations In Washing- 
ton - the home of more than 3,000 enrolled Indians. Rich in natural resources, mosl 
of the several hundred thousand acres of land under the Taholah jurisdiction are 
heavily forested, and from the sale of timber last year, the Taholah Indians received 
$226,705. Fishing is also a major industry, and the year's catch by Taholah Indians 
was valued at $356,232. 

Other recent personnel changes in the Northwest included the appointment of 
Myrthus Evans as superintendent of the Chemawa Indian Vocational School, near Sal em , 
Oregon. Evans, a former principal of the Tuba City Boarding School on the Navajo 
Reservation, Arizona, succeeds Paul T. Jackson, who has transferred to the War De- 
partment. 

Superintendent L. W. Shotwell, in charge of the Flathead Indian Agency, Dixon, 
Montana, since 1934 entered on duty as superintendent of the Yakima Indian Agency, 
Toppenish, Washington, on May 1, 1943. Replacing Shotwell at the Flathead juris- 
diction Is C. C. Wright, who has been superintendent at Uintah and Ouray Agency, 
Fort Duchesne, Utah, since 1936. 

M. A. Johnson, former superintendent of the Yakima Indian Agency, has been 
appointed Northwest regional credit supervisor with headquarters In Billings, Mon- 
tana. He replaces F. A. Asbury, who last May 1 was appointed superintendent of 
Fort Peck Indian Agency, Poplar, Montana. 



Earl Riley is Bacone's 

First President of Indian Blood 



Earl Riley, 28-year-old Creek and 
formerly pastor of the Cochran Avenue Bap- 
tist Church, Los Angeles, California, has 
been appointed President of Bacone College, 
Bacone, Oklahoma. Mr. Riley, himself a 
graduate of Bacone, is the college's first 
president of Indian blood. A church- endowed 
institution, Bacone is the only accredited 
college in the United States devoted exclu- 
sively to the education of Indians. 

Bacone consists of a high school and 
junior college which specializes in training 
rural teachers. Associated with it is the 
Murrow Orphanage, and the Indian student- 
teachers of Bacone receive practice teach- 
ing in grades beginning with kindergarten 
and continuing through high school. 



J* #ffc 




Earl Riley, Creek, President of Bacone College 



Mr. Riley completed his junior college work at Bacone and in 1937 was grad- 
uated from Redlands University, California. Several years of study at the Newton 
Theological Seminary in Philadelphia and at the University of Pennsylvania followed 
before Mr. Riley's assignment to the Baptist Church in Los Angeles. 



Federal Grants For Student Nurses 

To meet the wartime shortage of medical personnel, the Federal Government 
will make outright grants to cover the costs of student nurse's schooling at qualified 
hospitals throughout the country. Indians as well as others who desire to become 
nurses may receive training at no expense to themselves. The Federal grant will 
cover the cost of books, uniforms, tuition and other fees and also includes a personal 
allowance of $15 the first nine months of study, $20 per month for 21 months of com- 
bined study and practice, and $30 per month for the period following until graduation. 
Student nurses will be members of the U. S. Nurse Cadet Corps and will wear uni- 
forms specially designed for them by leading stylists. 

Acceptance of the Federal grant obligates the student to be available, upon re- 
quest, for military or Federal or essential civilian service. 

In order to help Indians qualify as student nurses, Haskell Institute will offer 
certain courses in science, mathematics, and languages not now being taught In Fed- 
eral Indian high schools. Any Indian who desires to prepare for entrance In nursing 
school may transfer to Haskell Institute, Lawrence, Kansas, from any other Federal 
Indian high school, regardless of location. The student may transfer to Haskell at the 
end of the third high-school year, and may remain at Haskell without additional ex- 
pense until hospital entrance requirements are met. 



16 

Among Recent Books 

By Anita S. Tilden, Librarian 

MAXWELL LAND GRANT, A NEW MEXICO ITEM, William A. Keleher. The Rydall 
Press, 1942. 168 p. Illustrated. In the year 1841 Manuel Armijo, Governor 
of New Mexico, granted to Guadalupe Mirana and Carlos Beaubien a tract of 
land in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico. There was immediate 
opposition to this grant. Some of this land had been claimed already by 
Charles Bent, and the right to the land was held by the people of nearby towns. 
They had grazed their cattle there for many years. Seven rivers flow through 
this tract, one of them the Cimarron. 

Later, the grant was owned and added to by Lucien B. Maxwell, who had mar- 
ried the daughter of Carlos Beaubien. In 1869 Maxwell sold the grant of ap- 
proximately two million acres (more than twice the area of Rhode Island) to 
the Maxwell Land Grant and Railway Company for $650,000. The tract was so 
large that pioneers, both Spanish and American, came and settled thereon, hop- 
ing to obtain homestead rights. The Ute and Jicarilla Apache Indians believed 
that this land was theirs. They had used it since time immemorial, and it was 
many years before they realized that others' claims would compel them to re- 
linquish theirs. 

Many and conflicting were the claims. It was said that the land had been 
"falsely, fraudulently and deceitfully" surveyed. Almost the entire population 
of New Mexico became involved on one side or the other. A person was con- 
sidered either "grant" or "anti-grant." Law suits resulted, violence and 
murder were committed. Feeling ran high and a "Squatter Club" and "Vigi- 
lantes" were organized. Litigation was finally ended by the Supreme Court of 
the United States in 1887. 

THE FOREST AND THE FORT, Hervey Allen. Farrar & Rinehart. 344 p. The auth- 
or of Anthony Adverse believes that the early Americans feared the woods or 
unknown forest beyond their little settlements far more than they did the Indi- 
ans. He begins this novel with a vivid description of the forest. It is the first 
of three novels which will comprise Volume I of a two-volume romance en- 
titled The Disinherited . 

This popular novel is worth noting because its hero, Salathiel Albine, is cap- 
tured by the Shawnees and grows up as the son of a Chief before returning to 
the white society in which he was born. 

LITTLE NAVAJO BLUEBIRD; Ann Nolan Clark. Viking Press. 143 p. Illustrated. 
Ann Clark, Indian Service writer and teacher, has written another of her de- 
lightful Indian stories for children. Having worked among Indian children for 
some years, Mrs. Clark has a rare understanding of them. This book is writ- 
ten particularly for young folks from about seven to ten years of age. In ad- 
dition to being entertaining, it may be helpful to teachers of the elementary 
grades in their Indian unit studies. 

INDIAN VILLAGES OF THE ILLINOIS COUNTRY, PART I ATLAS, Compiled by Sara 
Jones Tucker. Illinois State Museum. Fifty-four maps, beginning with the 
famous Jesuit map of 1671, and fine bibliography are included in this valuable 



vt 



reference work for historians, archeologlsts and other students interested in 
early Indian- white history. The author in her preface states that this publica- 
tion purposes to make available what is known thus far about the tribes who 
formerly occupied Illinois, the areas in which they lived, the sites of their vil- 
lages, their migrations, and their contacts with other tribes and with white 
persons. 

SUN CHIEF, THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A HOPI INDIAN, edited by Leo Simmons. 
Yale University Press, 1942. 460 p. Illustrated. Reviewed by Dr. Ralph 
Hamill, Assistant Illinois State Alienist, and Consultant In Psychiatry at Hines 
Veterans Facility. 

These 460 pages are an autobiography and an important document in ethnology. 
A short description of method of preparation gives scientific standing. The 
Hopis of Oralbl, the oldest continuously inhabited town in the United States, are 
briefly described. The bulk of the book is a detailed account of Don's life: 
fifty years, much of it day by day. It ends with a dream of Don's guardian 
spirit in which the spirit guided him to and presented him with a fine brick 
house with a porch facing east and a flock of 900 trained sheep. And the guide 
said "You will need them for your family, so don't let any white man get them 
away from you." Following Don's diary are 80 pages of comment, analysis, 
legends and myths, guide to Hopi kinship, and index. 

The book is important in presenting the case for the Indian, a minority whose 
rights for a long time were ignored or neglected by most people. The diary 
shows too how ideas of right and wrong are dominated by the customs of the 
particular society. The influence of religion is acknowledged with far greater 
frequency than we would expect in the autobiography of a white Christian. 
Cause for behavior is found and assigned to spiritual Influence with ease - 
something we have entirely gotten away from. The use of corn meal enters in- 
to so many situations in which divine Influence might be thought to enter, and 
corn Is such an Important element In the Hopl diet that one is led to think of 
some of the beliefs we hold of the importance of diet. They are beliefs of re- 
ligious intensity; they lead to hypochondriasis and paranoia. Throughout the 
book runs the theme of the reason for things done and things experienced. 
Right and wrongare as definite and as influential inDon's behavior as they are 
in any white man's behavior. Perhaps they appear much more definite and im- 
portant because they differ so from our ideas. There is a more naive and 
frank recognition of the force of nature than would be found in the biography of 
a white man. This is shown especially in the sexual field. Don's dreams were 
of great importance to him. They foretold trouble and sickness. When trouble 
came the dreams were recognized as evil. Much is made of magic, and belief 
in the powers of rites and of the spoken word as a part of Don's strength. 
Death was caused by evil thoughts. If death came to a young person it was be- 
cause some older person was sending its ghost to satisfy the spirit gods lest 
they demand the spirit of the older one. So when his baby died, Don said the 
death was caused by an uncle of his wife. 

Perhaps Don was a very unusual Hopi and perhaps his beliefs were not shared 
by others of his clan and tribe, but in reading the book, this is not the impres- 
sion given. 





Dan and Joe Madrano, Cad- 
dos of Oklahoma, enlisted in 
the National Guard when on- 
ly 14 and 16 years old. Up- 
on mobilization of the Na- 
tional Guard into the Army 
their youth was discovered 
and Dan was honorably dis- 
charged. He returned to 
high school and upon gradu- 
ation volunteered for the U.S. 
Army Air Corps. He found 
Joe had transferred from the 
regular Army to the same 
air base. They remained to- 
gether for the rest of their 
training and received their 
wings and commissions at 
Ellington Field, Florida. 
They are sons of Representa- 
tive D. M. Madrano of the 
Oklahoma State Legislature. 



Sun Chief, The Autobiography of a Hopi Indian - continued from preceding page. 

(Editor's Note: To Dr. Hamlll's remarks, we add the comments of Dr. Alex- 
ander Lelghton, a psychiatrist who has worked in Indian communities and who 
is now associated with the Indian Service at Poston, Arizona, the largest Jap- 
anese evacuee settlement. Dr. Lelghton's comments on the Sun Chief were 
published with Clyde Kluckhohn's review of the book in the American Anthro- 
pologist, April- June 1943.) 

It is implied somewhere that this is a study of a man who has lived in two cul- 
tures and then went back to the Hopi way of life. Actually, Don's position 
seems to have been the reverse - never fully accepted in either culture (why 
didn't he have any girl friends in Oraibl? etc.). His career in school suggests 
something which may be a common denominator in many cases. Although ma- 
terial advantages which Indians desire are held up in school as rewards and 
are provided, there is no warm human relationship with whites that in the 
slightest degree can make up for the lack of the Indian's family. It is like an 
orphanage compared to family life in our culture plus the fact that the whites 
patronize the Indians and make it clear by many small actions (even when 
verbally saying the opposite) that Indians will never have the same status and 
prestige as whites. This is of course not the same as being unkind - nor is it 
real paternalism. It is more akin to what the southerners mean when they 
speak of being kind to the colored people but keeping them in their place. The 
Indian - at least many of them - with their culture conditioning them so strong- 
ly to need respect from their fellows and with ridicule as an all powerful sanc- 
tion are by and large ill fitted to adjust to even the most well-disposed white 
institution. Don's reactions to school illustrate this, I think. Then he goes, 
back to the Hopi and stews there for years, getting into more and more trouble. 
Finally, the anthropologists come along and do what no other white man has 
ever done - treat him as a person worthy of respect, are interested in his 
thoughts, feed his ego with prestige. He therefore responds to them. 



10 

Beauty In The Night 

(From June 29, 1943 Globe- Gazette, Mason City, Iowa.) 

In Omaha the other day 69-year-old White Bird, an Omaha Indian, who has 
lived Ms life on a north Nebraska reservation, uttered a few sage sentences which 
seemed to have been prophetic of his race. White Bird had gone to Omaha to be with 
a daughter charged with the murder of her husband. 

"I have had five daughters and one son," he said, "and only one of them wanted 
to stay on the land. That was my boy and a few months ago he died ... I know the 
city is no place for an Indian. I am an old man and I need their help on the land but 
they all wanted to go to the city where the money is paid at the end of the week, and you 
don't have to wait. They wanted to live where there is some place to go at night - 
where it is never quiet. That was not meant for our people." 

This old Indian in distress over the plight of a young woman, his daughter, 
charged, with killing her husband by plunging a knife into him, speaks the wisdom Of a 
ripe life, and a wisdom that applies not only to his own race but to the peoples of other 
races. 



-; 



In paraphrase of Goldsmith, "ill fares not only theland but people themselves" 
when they find it impossible to reconcile themselves to the quiet at night of distant 
and lonely places. 

Those nights should not be lonely. They should be friendly and companionable 
in the heart of a family, and in retrospection and thought. They should be beautiful 
with the night noises of insects and animals. They should be inviting with the lullaby 
songs of birds, going to rest; with the beauty of the sky, and the stars. 

There in the night people find strength and beauty in a universe made for them. 

Pablo Reservoir — Flathead Agency, Montana 











20 






In Alaska 87-year-old 

Eskimos want To Fight 




"If they'd let us, we'd go fight the 

J ap Asagroak and Kakaruk of Igloo, Alaska 

These axe the words of Asagroak and Kakaruk, oldest Eskimos of Igloo, Alaska 
known to the local white people as Old Joe and Old John. These two 87-year-old men 
are eager to contribute their share in the fight against the Nazis and Japs. Since they 
are not able to take an active part in the present conflict they and over a hundred 
other natives of the isolated Alaska village aid tne Allied cause by doing the work 
left behind by men now in the armed forces, by contributing to the war relief organiza- 
tions, and by supplying the Army with needed equipment. 

Men like "Old Joe" and "Old John" fish and trap, and the game is dried and 
stored away. In sub-zero temperatures the men leave the village nearly every day to 
cut willows for firewood, then haul them home on their sleds to their mud-covered 
igloos. 

The Eskimo women in this village spend long hours daily sewing reindeer 
skins and ugruk hides with reindeer sinew, making mukluks (Eskimo boots) to fill 
Army orders for footwear for the soldiers stationed at Nome. The women know that 
only mukluks will keep the feet of soldiers warm in the Arctic temperatures and true 
patriotism inspires them in their labors. 

Eight of the women of Igloo, Alaska have each made a pair of mukluks and 
given the $41 proceeds from the sale to the American Red Cross. Girls from the 
fifth, sixth, and seventh grades contrived a plan to make a pair of mukluks, sell them, 
and use the money to pay membership in the Junior Red Cross. The girls did all the 
work of scraping and tanning the reindeer skin; shaping the ugruk soles with their 
teeth; obtaining and preparing the sinew. Not to be outdone by the girls, five boys in 
the classes soldptarmagin and snowshoe rabbits to the teachers to pay their member- 
ship dues in the Red Cross. 

Almost 200 miles from Igloo, the natives on St. Lawrence Island, close to the 
Siberian shore, heard about the Red Cross drive by radio and radioed to the Indian 
Office at Juneau to subscribe heavily for them. Gambell is the largest purchaser of 
Bonds of any native village in the far north, with a total last April of $2,925 worth 
from a population of 296. 

A letter received by the Indian Office from Vivian L. Dotts, teacher in Fish- 
hook Town, near Holy Cross on the Yukon River, described Hannah Moses Peter's 
purchase of a bond. Mrs. Peter and her husband are full-blood Indians and have 10 
children. Mr. Peter makes the family living by trapping. In order to earn the money 



with which to purchase a $25 bond, Mrs. Peter went trap- 
ping and earned the money herself. 

"You must remember that we are far from civiliza- 
tion and no drives or anything of that kind have been held to 
encourage bond purchases, though at every meeting someone 
rises and urges everyone to buy bonds," Miss Dotts wrote. 

Claude M. Hirst, general superintendent for the In- 
dian Service in Alaska, has said, "The natives of Alaska, 
not only are helping the war cause with funds but many of 
the men are in the armed forces, and the others, includ- 
ing the women, are performing invaluable services in many 
ways in which their peculiar knowledge and acquaintance 
with northern conditions make them particularly efficient. 

The patriotism of "Old Joe" and "Old John" is shared 
by the thousands of natives throughout Alaska - Indians, 
Eskimos and Aleuts. All of them are loyal Americans and 
proud of their United States citizenship. Recently an Eskimo 
woman, wife of an aviation cadet, the first woman of her 
race to join the armed forces of the United States, was 
sworn into the Army Nurse Corps. She is Lt. Anna G. Ben- 
ton, formerly of Bethel, Alaska. At the brief induction 
ceremonies at Boca Raton field, Florida, she said, "I am 
most happy to be able to serve my country in the Army Air 
Forces and hope that in the near future I may be able to re- 
turn to Alaska to assist the many Americans located there 
who are defending our shores." 

(From Mr. and Mrs. William Benson, Indian Service 
employees, came data about Igloo, Alaska.) 




Lt. Anna G. Benton, Eskimo 
Photo by U.S. Army Air Forc< 



Hoopa Leader Diesln Accident 

Mahlon Marshall, 44-year-old Hoopa Indian and President of the Hoopa Valley 
Tribal Council for four years, died almost instantly June 13, 1943, in an automobile 
accident which occurred near his home, Hoopa, California. Mr. Marshall was driv- 
ing alone and apparently lost control of the car. He is survived by a wife and four 
children. 



Superintendent O. M. Boggess stated, "Mr. 
tance to his people in the conduct of tribal affairs. 



Marshall has been of much assis- 



22 

"To Exercise Certain Rights of Self-Government" 

News From Tribal Councils 

Many Indians have petitioned their Tribal Councils for additional land for 
farmingthis past spring, according to the minutes of Council meetings. On some res- 
ervations there is no land not already in use. For example, the Lower Sioux Com- 
munity had to answer an applicant with these words, "There isn't any land available 
for farming, so we can't assign you any." 

Indians in a few sections of the country are rich in irrigated land and lease 
their surplus lands to white farmers. Many more Indians are land-poor, especially 
in the plains area, but there appears little likelihood that funds will be appropriated 
for the purchase of additional lands for Indians during the war. 

In making assignments of land, the Standing Rock Tribal Council gives prefer- 
ence to the families of men in military service. On the receipt of a letter from a 
sailor, Chaske Frederick Wicks, stationed in the South Pacific, the Council canceled 
a tract recently assigned to Regina Little Bird White Eagle in favor of Seaman Wick's 
request. 

Despite land and labor shortages, Indian farmers and cattlemen continue to in- 
crease their production. .Over a three-year period (1939-1942) Indian farmers have 
planted 200,000 additional acres in grain crops and have enlarged their gardens by 
3,000 acres. 

One factor in the increased food production is the careful planning done by In- 
dian communities in cooperation with Indian Service employees. For the 19 pueblos 
in New Mexico, for example, the agency staff furnishes a contract whereby an Indian 
going to war may assign his farming equipment, land, and cattle to another member 
of the village. Under the direction of the Governor and the Council of the village, the 
new operator agrees to maintain the enterprise, receive a share in the proceeds, and 
return the original amount of equipment and livestock to the owner on his return. 

From Rosebud 
For the purpose of creating a memorial to their boys in military service, the 
Rosebud Sioux Tribal Council has agreed to tax each of their tribesmen who are quali- 
fied to vote the sum of 50 cents. Harry Bad Hand, President of the Ring Thunder 
Community, submitted the resolution to the Council. 

From Flathead 
Several Tribal Councils have lent money to defray transportation costs of In- 
dians traveling to war jobs. The Flathead Tribal Council is the first to establish an 
official tribal loan fund for this purpose. The Council has set aside $1200, from 
which members of the tribe may borrow funds to travel to war centers, either for 
jobs, or for war training courses. 

From Papago 
The desert Papago who live along the Mexican border in Arizona will obtain 
revenue for their Tribal Treasury by placing a 3 per cent tax on all livestock sales, 
beginning July 1, 1943. Some families own substantial cattle herds, which thrive on 
the desert grasses, and in periods of drought, the cattle even manage to subsist on 
cacti, yucca, mesquite beans, and other desert vegetation. 



23 



The Papago Tribal Council has recently located housing quarters for Papago 
soldiers stopping overnight at Sells Agency on their way home on furlough or on their 
way to an Army training camp for the first time. The boys had been sleeping over- 
night in the jail because of the lack of accommodations. Now a house is provided 
them. The Council also defrays the boys' eating costs at the Employees' Club. 

From Jicarilla 
The news sheet of the National Wool Marketing Corporation cites the Jicarilla 
Apache Tribe, as "a perfect example of 100 per cent cooperative marketing. All the 
wool, lambs and cattle of the tribe are accumulated and wholesaled through their own 
Jicarilla Apache Co-op store which does a retail business with the tribe of approxi- 
mately $125,000 each year. In 1943 the tribal clip of wool'will approximate 225,000 
pounds of very fine uniform-type wool." 



Natives of Klukwan, Alaska agree to permit the government to build a highway over their land. 

Photo by George Dale 




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25 

In Fifty Years There May Be As Many Indians 

As Before the White Man's Arrival 

With a 53.3 per cent drop In his death rate over a period of 12 years, the Am- 
erican Indian is no longer vanishing but is gaining in numbers slightly faster than the 
general population of the United States, according to statistics recently compiled by 
the Office of Indian Affairs. 

Still a small minority numbering approximately 430,000 in the United States 
and Alaska, the American Indian is not likely to overtake and outnumber the general 
population in the next million years, according to J. Nixon Hadley, Chief Statistician, 
but the Indian, if his present rate of increase continues, may easily regain his pre- 
Columbian number by the year 2005. A recent anthropological estimate puts the In- 
dian population of the United States before the arrival of Columbus at about 720,000. 

The trends in Indian birth and death rates follow closely the general U.S. 
trends over the years 1929 to 1942. The Indian birth rate has fallen 25 per cent dur- 
ing these years, but this decline is more than compensated by the sharp reduction in 
Indian deaths. The net increase in Indians per 1,000 for the year 1941 was 10.6. 

Additional hospitals and trained medical personnel, modern schools, and an 
improved economic status for the Indian have all contributed in lowering the Indians' 
death rate during the past generation, according to Indian Service officials. In most 
Indian communities, these services for the Indians are maintained by the Federal 
Government through the Office of Indian Affairs. Some isolated Indian and native com- 
munities in Alaska still lack adequate health and school facilities, Indian Service of- 
ficials state. 

"I hesitate to suggest trends in Indian population," Mr. Hadley said, "because 
the estimates of early explorers and traders varied greatly. Also the annual reports 
of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs up until 1930 did not consistently record the 
same tribes, and in an earlier period, even included 25,000 Negro Freedmen and in- 
termarried whites of the Five Civilized Tribes." 

"On the basis of the most reliable information available," Mr. Hadley said, 
"we know that the Indian population diminished greatly sometime early in the nine- 
teenth century, dropping in about 75 years from approximately 600,000 individuals to 
250,000. The low point was reached in 1887 when the Indians numbered 242,571. In 
1904 the population curve ceased to move downward, and instead, began gradually to 
climb upward." 

In a discussion of the causes of the decline of Indian' population in "The Hand- 
book of American Indians," published in 1910 by the Smithsonian Institution, James 
Mooney wrote: 

"The chief causes of decrease, in order of importance, may be classed as small 
pox and other epidemics; tuberculosis; sexual diseases; whiskey and attendant dissi- 
pation; removals; starvation and subjection to unaccustomed conditions; low vitality 
due to mental depression under misfortune; wars. In the category of destroyers all 
but wars and tuberculosis may be considered to have come from the white man, and 
the increasing destructiveness of tuberculosis itself is due largely to conditions con- 
sequent upon his advent. . . .Wars in most cases have not greatly diminished the num- 
ber of Indians. The tribes were in chronic warfare among themselves, so that the 



RATE 
PER 
1000 

30 


INDIAN BIRTH AND DEATH RATES 

COMPARED WITH 

TOTAL FOR UNITED STATES. 




28 

26 

24 

22 

20 

18 

16 

14 

12 

10 

8 

6 

4 

2 




^^ 


i 

\ 
\ 


























\ 


\ 

V 
























\ 

\ 
\ 
\ 




















••■ 




\ 

1 


\ 


Indian 




Rote 


~~'~ 


""■-»-»« 




-- ~ 


— —"*' 




\ 


\ 




















\ 




\ 


























'N, 






" "ote. 







^^ 


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_ R . a JS-- 




'"'V 

V 




























\ 















o;£*— - 


Rote 




'*""■■*•—*••— 












































Net 


increase. 












Net 


Incrensn 








































Compiled by J; Nixon Hadley, Chief Statistician 
Office of Indian Affairs 
Department of the Interior 
July 1943. 

Sources: Indian Service reports for Indian figures. 

Bureau of the Census for general U.S. figures. 
















19; 


.8 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 19 

7 


40 



27 



balance was nearly even until, as in the notable case of the Iroquois, the acquisi- 
tion of firearms gave one body an immense superiority over its neighbors." 

Today, of the total U. S. Indian population, 368,920 Indians in the United States 
and 32,464 natives of Alaska are considered under Federal jurisdiction. Some 25,000 
to 30,000 additional Indians are not eligible for services through the Office of Indian 
Affairs but through their state or local governments. 

Those Indians not under Federal jurisdiction are not represented in the figures 
sketched on the charts accompanying this article. 

During the past 15 years the Indian population has steadily grown. Because of 
the small number of Indians, certain yearly fluctuations appear in the figures below 
which are without statistical significance. One factor is the slow and irregular re- 
porting of Indian births and deaths which occur away from the jurisdiction at which 
the Indian is enrolled. A trend is definitely shown, however, and to counteract chance 
variations, the curve on the population graph on the opposite page reflects a three- 
year average for each year. This is standard statistical procedure. For example, 
the point designated on the graph for 1928 represents an average of the net increase 
for the years 1927, 1928, and 1929. 

A more nearly accurate net increase for each year will be ascertainable in the 
future, according to Mr. Hadley, by a change in the method of determining birth and 
death rates. Calculations based on births and deaths only of Indians living on reser- 
vations will eliminate one of the errors mentioned above. 

Births Deaths Net increases 

Year per 1000 per 1000 per 1000 

1927 25.4 21.4 4.0 

1928 28.5 21.8 6.7 

1929 32.7 28.3 4.4 

1930 27.0 19.9 7.1 

1931 21.5 16.0 5.5 

1932 21.4 14.3 7.1 

1933 23.8 15.5 8.3 

1934 21.2 14.7 6.5 

1935 23.8 16.4 7.4 

1936 23.9 16.0 7.9 

1937 22.9 14.9 8.0 

1938 22.7 13.0 9.7 

1939 23.1 14.0 9.1 

1940 24.2 12.6 11.6 

1941 23.9 13.3 10.6 



Differences in the Office of Indian Affairs and the Bureau of Census reports on 
Indianpopulation occur because of the variations in defining an Indian. The 1940 Cen- 
sus enumerators were instructed to record as Indian, those persons of mixed blood 
if the proportion of Indian blood is one-fourth or more, or if the person is regarded 
as an Indian in the community where he lives." The Office of Indian Affairs defines 




Mission Indian Guards Sitka, Alaska 



Photo by U.S. Marine Corps 



as Indian any person of Indian blood who has certain rights through ownership, treaty, 
inheritance, or tribal recognition. In 1940 the Office of Indian Affairs reported 
361,816 Indians in the United States eligible for Federal aid. The Bureau of the Cen- 
sus reported a total U. S. Indian population of 333,969, including Indians not under 
Federal jurisdiction. 



Undoubtedly, Census enumerators overlooked some persons of one-fourth or 
more degree of Indian blood living in non-Indian communities. On the other hand, 
some tribal rolls contain the names of persons of one-eighth or one-sixteenth or less 
degree of Indian blood who are counted in the population figures compiled by the Of- 
fice of Indian Affairs. 



29 



From the Moil Bag 



What They Say About Their Magazine 

" — I am writing for the Indian youths stationed at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. 
Recently 'Indians At Work', an interesting booklet arrived and we Indians were en- 
tirely tickled to dickens to read it. You can just imagine how happy we were to read 
of other Indians doing their part. 

"There are six Comanches stationed here in various units while other mem- 
bers of the tribe are stationed at Fort Benning, Georgia, and are known as the 'In- 
dian Signal Corps.' We are the only Indians among thousands of palefaces. .Neverthe- 
less, we do have quite a bit of fun. We six all hail from the Fort Sill Indian School 
and are volunteers and not draftees." Pvt. Paul Ticeahkie. Fort Sam Houston, Texas. 

From A Soldier 

"--During the past two months I have been getting 'Indians At Work' here in 
camp. I'm a member of the Navajo tribe and also a member of a field artillery bat- 
talion in the armed forces. I have three white buddies here in my organization and 
they are all interested in reading about the Indians. 

"This is my eighth month serving in the Army- -with a heart full of spirit and 
rhythm, ready to follow in the footsteps of my great grandfathers waybeyond thecen= 
turies. I am glad I am an American and proud to do my part defending my country." 
Pvt. Riley Freeland , Camp Young, California. 

We Indians Are Proud 

"--Where else, from what other source do we Indians find material regarding 

our people? To us, 'Indians At Work' is an incentive, a guide post, a warning, and 

instructor. Consider what the white race would think if their daily newspaper was 

suddenly taken from them. Once in a while our Indians break into the white man's 

press. When he does it is usually one extreme or the other ....Today the whole 

world is looking to the United States; we Indians particularly are the pulse beat of the 

world. We are the living example of the functioning of a great democracy Aa 

long as there is reservation for the publishing of 'Indians At Work', the conquered 
nations of the world need not fear for their post-war rehabilitation program. In con- 
clusion, I wish to request the continued publishing of 'Indians At Work' (under sub- 
scription fee if necessary), not alone for enlightenment and inspirations gained, but 
also for the consideration of the existing status between ward and guardian at this 
critical period of world history. We Indians are proud of our ward- ship. Let our 
people and all nations of the world know, that our government sees fit to continue pub- 
lishing 'Indians At Work', as vitally important to her wards." Mrs. Reva Barss, 293 
Sycamore Street, Buffalo, N. Y., Seneca Indian of the Iroquois Tribe of New York State. 

* * * 

"--We are very anxious to get this magazine as this is an Indian school and 
the children certainly do enjoy reading it. The older people borrow it and it never 
returns to the school until it has made the rounds of the entire community." May 
Bell Goshin , Martin, South Dakota. 



30 



From A War Worker 

"--I want you to keep sending me 'Indians At Work' as it is just like receiv- 
ing a letter from home ...I am now working in a defense plant helping good 'Old 

Uncle Sam' out." Joseph S. Sheehan, Baltimore, Maryland. (Carlisle Indian School., 
Class of 1908.) 

* * * 

" — The reason I request this is because I make good use of the magazine. 
First I tell the Indians who cannot read and write, and who wanted information, the 
good things written therein. Second, I ase the magazine myself in gathering articles 
and it is sometimes found the whole magazine is good. I do not throw them away, I 
keep all of mine." Stephen S. Tones, Fort Thompson, South Dakota. 

* * * 

"--I wish to have 'Indians At Work' because I know what the Indian Office is 
doing for the Indians. Heretofore we never knew what the Office was doing. (It is our 
office.) 'Indians At Work' reduces the fear of the white people that the Indian is sav- 
age and mean, and it is very encouraging not only to me but to my two boys and girl. 
It puts energy into them." N. H. Johnson, Greenwood, Wisconsin. 

* * * 

"--'Indians At Work' is my only contact with Indians at large. I am a full- 
blood Kickapoo from Shawnee, Oklahoma. My copy of 'Indians At Work' is read from 
cover to cover, then read by my Indian friends, then sent to camp to my husband, who 
is half Walapai from Arizona, who is in the Army Air Force Band. He writes me, by 
the time it goes the rounds at camp, there isn't much left." Weeping Star, Hunting- 
ton Park. 

From A Canadian Indian 

"--Please continue to send me, 'Indians At Work'because we Indians in Cana- 
da are in need of such a periodical in our crusade to get legislation which would give 
us the same rights and privileges which the U.S. Indians now possess." T. H. Tacobs . 

M. P. , Caughnawaga, Quebec. 

* * * 

"--I am a Navajo Indian boy. I attend Baca Day School east of Wingate, New 
Mexico. We get 'Indians At Work' and read what other boys and girls do at their 
schools. We want boys and girls to know about our school and some of the things we 
do to make it attractive. 

"We have nice trees. We irrigate them from a reservoir on the hill. Along 
the ditch we have planted wiid iris. We have terraced our hill, made walls, walks, 
and bridges across the irrigation ditches, and steps and seats from large flat stones. 

"The railroad goes by our school. We see many soldier trains. We put up 
our flag every morning it isn t raining or snowing. We want the soldiers to see our 
flag flying. We can all give the pledge to the flag. Each child takes a turn leading the 
pledge. 

"We joined the Junior Red Cross. Each child wore a button. We are now buy- 
ing War Stamps. We do work around the school - haul coal, clean the bathroom,, school 
yard, dining room and class room, and get kindling. Mrs. Sharp, our teacher, glves^ 
us a nickel for this. We go to the trading post and buy Stamps. We are going to see 
which class gets the first book." 



Last Rites for Navajo Flier 

On a high plain between Window 
Rock and Fort Defiance, Arizona, Lt. 
Luther K. Chase, talented young Navajo 
of the U. S. Army Air Force, was laid 
to rest May 10, 1943, with the reverence 
and honor due one who has died in his 
country's service. 

Lt. Chase was killed in a bomber 
Crash in Idaho, and at the request of his 
parents, his body was brought home to 
the Navajo country for burial. Lt. Chase 
was accorded a full military funeral, 
with representatives present from the 
American Legion, the Veterans of For- 
eign Wars, the Army, the Navy and the 
Marine Corps. Services, including 
chants and prayers, were conducted in 
Navajo and English. 

The site selected for burial, one 
familiar to all Navajo, is bound on the 
east by red-walled canyons and mesas 
and on the west by pine-covered hills. 
It may become a memorial cemetery 
for all Navajos whose lives are given in 
this war, according to Supt. J. M. Stewart 




Lt. Luther Chase, Navajo 



The flag-draped casket was borne by six young Navajo who like Lt. Chase 
had answered the call to arms. They were John C. Howard and Lloyd G. Smith of the 
U. S. Navy, Pvt. Charles Chesley, Sgt. Stephen Jackson, Corp. Eddie Lincoln, and Pfc. 
Andrew Tslhnahjlnnle of the U. S. Army. The Honor Guard of the Army Air Force 
and members of Lt. Chase's family completed the cortege. More than 400 Navajo and 
their white friends were present at the services. 

Lt. Chase had attended Leupp and Albuquerque Indian Schools and Highlands 
University. He taught in the Albuquerque and Phoenix Indian Schools before he was 
called to military service. After an assignment in the Panama Canal Zone, he re- 
turned to the United States for flight training. He had received his wings and was 
stationed at Gowan Field, Idaho, as a member of the 52nd Squadron of the 29th Bom- 
bardment Group when the crash occurred in which he lost his life. Lt. Chase was 27 
years old. He is survived by his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Denet Yazzle Begay, and sev- 
eral brothers and sisters. 

Lt. Chase's mother expressed her sincere appreciation for the tributes ac- 
corded her son, and said that she feels grateful and happy that she knows her boy lies 
at rest among his own people and that she has seen and heard the beautiful service. 
Lt. Cleary's dignity and simplicity in the performance of his duties as honor guard 
were especially gratifying to Lt. Chase's parents, and they talked with him at length 
about the work of their son as a member of the crmed forces. The American flag 
which covered the casket of Lt. Chase was removed just before he was lowered into 
the grave and given to his mother who asked that lt be enclosed in a glass case and 
placed in the Navajo Council House at Window Rock. 




First Indian Army Chaplain 
is Lt. James Collins Ottipoby, 
Comanche. See News Digest 
opposite page. Photo U.S. 
Army Signal Corps. 



Cherokee Ignores Intense Pain - Returns to Gun 

With both feet so badly frostbitten he could not walk, "The Chief" - Sgt. Floyd 
L. Thompson, 23-year-old Cherokee Indian from Durant, Oklahoma - was receiving 
first aid treatment in the radio compartment of a Flying Fortress on its way home 
from a raid on Kiel on June 13. Thompson was ball turret gunner of the ship. The 
bombardier and the radio operator-gunner had removed Thompson's boots and socks 
and were rubbing his swollen feet in an attempt to restore circulation. Suddenly some- 
body shouted "fighters," as a dozen Me-109's pounded out of the clouds on the bomb- 
ers, who were then far out over the North Sea. 

"Stay where you are," the bombardier ordered Thompson as he and the other 
crewmen jumped to their guns. But "The Chief," barefooted and suffering intense 
pain, crawled back to the ball turret, where he kept the guns so busy one of them 
burned out. The other members of the crew said that Thompson didn t even bother 
to put on his heavy jacket and that he didn't abandon his guns until the last of the at- 
tackers were driven off. They added that he purposely left off his inter-communication 
earphones so he wouldn't hear any orders for him to leave his post. 



Thompson's electrically heated flying suit had failed to function and all during 
the raid he had suffered from the bitter cold, with his feet the most severely Injured. 
But "The Chief" didn't tell the crew about that until the Fortress had successfully 
fought her way through the heaviest enemy fighter opposition the Americans had yet 
encountered, and had left Germans and the fighters behind. It was then he called for 
first aid. The assault on Kiel was the crew's fifth mission. 



33 



Indians Jn the j\ews 



Appointment of the first Indian chaplain in the Army, Chaplain First Lieuten- 
ant James Collins Ottipoby, was announced yesterday by the War Department. He is 
a Comanche and was born 43 years ago in Elgin, Oklahoma. He is a graduate of Hope 
College and the Western Theological Seminary at Holland, Michigan. He was pastor 
of the Christian Indian Mission at Albuquerque, N. M., when he was appointed a chap- 
lain and now is attending the chaplains' school at Harvard University. Washington 
Star . Tune 1. 1943 . 

Expressing the belief the Great Spirit had spoken, 26 Navajo Indians at Ship- 
rock, N. M., left for home last night after working for nearly a month as an extra 
section gang for the Denver & Salt Lake Railroad. One of their leaders and inter- 
preters, Johnnie E. Lee, 19, was fatally injured Sunday when he was struck on the 
head while the gang was working near Quartz Station, near Denver . Richard Redshirt , the 
other interpreter, said his fellow workers expressed the opinion that the death of Lee 
was an indication that the Great Spirit was displeased and wanted them to go home. 
Frank L. Calkins, assistant engineer with the maintenance-of-way department of the 
railroad, said the Indians were excellent workers and had been employed steadily 
since April 7. Denver News . May 12 , 1943 . 

Indians of the Six Nations' Federation, still farming small parts of their orig- 
inal lands in New York State, set a good war-time example for residents of rural sec- 
tions by growing nearly all the food they use. The families of the Indian tribes which 
first taught white men to grow corn to save them from starvation are still growing 
beans and squash as they did centuries ago, with potatoes, small grains and flocks of 
chickens and pigs for meat. Many of the Indians work in war industries during the 
day, doing their farming evenings and weekends. Baltimore News and Post. 

Indians of Tesuque Pueblo gave a party for a musical friend, Leopold Stokowski, 
conductor of the Philadelphia Symphony. Stokowski spent the afternoon taking copious 
notes on the music of the Indians and watched with an intensity seldom equaled by out 
of state visitors. He had notated the scale during the afternoon but when asked if he 
would take this music back to the Philadelphia orchestra he replied: "That would 
never do. To take this out of its setting would be meaningless." Santa Fe New Mexi- 
can. May 8. 1943 . 

One hundred and seventy-five prefabricated "victory huts" to house Navajos 
working at the Wingate Ordnance Depot will be completed within 60 days, Col. C. C. 
Witman, depot commandant, announced recently. Col. Witman said the "victory huts" 
are to be 16 feet square. Lavatory and laundry facilities will be provided in the mod- 
el community which also will have an administration building, medical, recreation 
and school buildings. Albuquerque Journal, May 18 . 1943 . 

New Mexico Pueblo Indians, who boosted farm production 25 per cent last year 
plan to increase 1943 yields at least 10 per cent, United Pueblos Agency officials re- 
ported Friday. All of the 3000 Indian families planted victory gardens, an increase 
of 50 per cent. The villages plan to use farm machinery more extensively as one 
means of meeting the manpower shortage. Anticipating this necessity early last fall 
Pueblo governors conducted a thorough check-up of community farming equipment and 
placed orders for spare parts and needed equipment soon after the 1942 harvest was 
completed. Albuquerque Journal . April 3, 1943 . 




Photo by U.S. Marine Corps 



Ute Indian Was Scout on Guadalcanal 



Maxie Chapoose, Ute, a private in the Marine Corps, acted as a scout when 
the leathernecks landed on Guadalcanal. In one of the first contingents to land, Cha- 
poose saw many months of fighting. He is in the San Diego Naval Hospital recovering 
from wounds received in the Solomon Islands campaign. 



Tonita Pena (Quah-ah), Indian artist and wife of Governor Pitacio Arquero of 
Cochiti Pueblo, had been thinking of the many Indian boys scattered all over the world, 
the group including her own son, Joe H. Herrera, who is on foreign duty. With her 
mind on the boys, she wondered what she could do to contribute. So she began to 
paint and the result of her artistic labors arrived at the Art Museum recently. She 
says this picture was "painted from the heart" and she is giving it to the Red Cross. 
She has priced it at $200 with all the money to be turned over to the Red Cross for 
their important war work. The painting in Indian symbolism tells the story of how 
these First Americans are fighting for their country on the home front as well as a- 
broad. In the upper center the sun's rays are shooting up into a large golden V out- 
side a red, white and blue V-for-Vlctory. Above there is the American eagle flying 
with a modern airplane. An Indian stands in prayer before the sun and across the V 
are 17 stars. The reason for 17, says Tonita, is that it is the Indians' number for 
victory. Santa Fe New Mexican, May 29, 1943 . 

The Blackfeet Tribal Business Council voted recently to subscribe $1,750 to- 
wards Blackfeet Indian Reservation's $2,000 quota in the National Red Cross dpiye^ 
Browning Chief, March 5 , 1943 . 

A modified version of the annual All-Indian Powwow will be presented at Al- 
buquerque July 3 and 4. Superior Judge H. K. Mangum, of the board of directors, said 
the tribal dances will take place on afternoons only and will be interspersed with e- 
vents of the all-Indian rodeo. The night programs have been canceled and one day 
eliminated because of gasoline and tire rationing. Also because of food rationing, the 
Powwow will be unable to feed as many Indians as have been accommodated in past 
years. Albuquerque Journal. May 24 . 1943 . 

Natives of the isolated Indian village of Kipnuk want to do their bit toward 
helping in the war effort. The Office of Indian Affairs received a bundle of mink and 
weasel pelts, with instructions to forward the skins to the Treasury for exchange in 
War Bonds. General Superintendent Claude M. Hirst sold the pelts in Juneau for 
$117.60 and sent in cash instead of furs. Washington Star , May 7, 1943 . 

Corporal Robert S. Youngdeer, Doylestown, has received a letter of commen- 
dation for meritorious conduct in the attack on Tulagi Island, August 7, it was an- 
nounced recently in Washington. The letter stated that Youngdeer, while serving as 
a Marine messenger during the attack "time and again exposed himself to machine- 
gun and rifle fire to deliver messages from the battalion command post to his com- 
pany commander, thereby materially assisting the successful prosecution of the raid- 
er mission." Youngdeer, an Indian, enlisted in July 1940. He is from the Cherokee 
Reservation in North Carolina. Philadelphia Bulletin , May 11, 1943. 

George Tinker, white-bearded father of the late Major General Clarence L. 
Tinker, was guest of honor today at a memorial service at Tinker field for his son. 
General Tinker, for whom the air field was named, is part Osage Indian. He has been 
reported missing since the battle of Midway. His father said he believed the general 
was still alive. Only last week General Tinker's 25-year-old pilot son, Major Clar- 
ence L. Tinker, Jr., was reported missing in Africa. Bartlesville Examiner , Tune 8, 
1943. 






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